Meterian Spotlight: A quick look at Honda’s open source software supply chain

Photo of front view of white honda car with headlights on at dusk
Photo by Douglas Bagg on Unsplash

Earlier this month, Honda announced it has suffered a cyber attack on its network.  It was affecting its operations around the world: their manufacturing plants have shut down, customer service work has been forced to stop, and their internal communication systems were affected.  Additionally, systems outside of Japan were affected due to a “virus” that spread through the network.  No further details on the root cause of the attack yet, but at Meterian we have done a quick surface scan of their websites honda.com and www.honda.co.uk.  Similar issues were found on both.  We’ll focus our blog post on Honda UK’s site.

From the summary report above, we see their website’s security scored 0 From the summary report above, we see their website’s security scored 0 out of 100 because it has 19 vulnerabilities, including jquery 1.4.2 which is vulnerable and outdated.  Honda.co.uk’s basic cybersecurity hygiene could be improved by making sure to not launch the website with vulnerable and old components — jquery 1.4.2 is from 2010.  Similar issues were found after analysing honda.com.

Although we don’t know if these two components’ weaknesses contributed to the hack of Honda’s systems, while investigations are private, we know every software application is part of a company’s digital estate.  Altogether, front end systems (like websites and mobile apps) and back end systems (like databases, servers, APIs that store or access a company’s customer data, intellectual property — the real business logic of the services) make up the digital estate.  Any security hole is a vulnerable entry point for cyber criminals to exploit and gain unauthorized access to information or systems to cause damage.  Last year in 2019, over 40GB of Honda’s data were breached, exposing details about internal systems and devices on their network. Cyber criminals have strategically targeted Honda again.  

There are many strategies to build up an organization’s cyber resilience, including cybersecurity cultural awareness among employees and operational and software development best practices.  Meterian helps customers reduce the time to detect, mitigate and resolve issues in applications’ software supply chain. These known vulnerabilities are easy to fix with Meterian because:

1. Safe coding practices can be easily adopted into the software development lifecycle  

2. Automated controls fit directly into the software development workflow for continuous monitoring

3. Meterian can be set up to run continuously and prevent such vulnerabilities from going live 

Most importantly, developers are empowered to recognise and address the issue early with information at their fingertips.  As stewards of software, they can automatically cyber-proof their apps with Meterian so the business can run continuously and avert giving unwanted prying eyes unauthorized access to systems and data.

To this day, Equifax’s mistake for not fixing a known security hole in its software application’s open source component still has consequences since the 2017 mega breach they suffered.  See TechRadar’s lackluster review of Equifax’s identity theft protection service, which they did not include in their article “Best identity theft protection for 2020.”   

Good practices in cybersecurity can help protect a company’s reputation and growth.  As we’ve also seen following the EasyJet hack incident revealed in May, business productivity and customer satisfaction can be adversely affected due to any cyber hack incident.  You can read our recent analysis on easyjet.com’s website.  

To see if your own public assets have open source vulnerabilities that anyone could find out about (and exploit to enter your systems), try our webscanner or project scanner.

Meterian Spotlight: A quick look at Honda’s open source software supply chain

jQuery, Javascript vulnerability of the month

Artwork by Marco Sciortino

Here we are! Guess what’s vulnerable again?
On April 10th 2020 it was made public that a vulnerability has been exploited in the most popular Javascript library ever implemented: jQuery 3.4.1.

Why is jQuery 3.4.1 vulnerable?

Vulnerability score: 5
Platform: Javascript
Components: jQuery, all versions before 3.5.0

When jQuery is invoked, it reads the HTML document and returns requested fragments of it.
Now, while reading the document it might find that the one or more requested fragments are not in the correct format, so it tries to translate them. Although most of the times the translation is correctly performed, it’s been demonstrated that in particular cases the conversion (or parsing) could lead to an XSS cross-site scripting vulnerability.

An XSS cross-site scripting is a type of code vulnerability that allows attackers to insert malicious code into the web pages viewed by other users. It might be exploited to steal information such as access tokens or other sensitive information. This is what a criminal or Black Hat hacker would do.

This is what a criminal or Black Hat hacker would do. White Hat hackers, on the other hand, would behave ethically and use their software White Hat hackers, on the other hand, would behave ethically. Using their software engineering knowledge, White Hat hackers would show how to exploit a vulnerability: publish useful information about it to make sure both users and owners of the vulnerable library could take actions to prevent attacks.

What actions are required to safely update?

The first thing to know is that all the old versions of jQuery have some sort of vulnerability.  Up until April 10th, version 3.4.1 was the only safe version available.  Fortunately, the new minor release 3.5.0 has been published to fix the XSS security vulnerability.

As suggested in the jQuery release note, updating to this latest version might break your code as, to prevent the abuse of this vulnerability, the HTML element phrase is no longer converted.
Therefore, a code review might be in order.

There is a lot of time-consuming effort involved in staying on track with all the latest code vulnerabilities as they are discovered but, fortunately, Meterian can help you with that.

When added to the CI/CD pipeline of any application, Meterian will automatically detect such vulnerabilities, or even fix them for you, and it will help you avoid the risk of an attack before it becomes a problem.

Beat open source vulnerabilities with Meterian.

jQuery, Javascript vulnerability of the month

Vulnerability Focus: Javascript

Welcome back to Meterian’s next Vulnerability Focus report edition. This week we are talking about Javascript vulnerabilities which need to be addressed. Both have been published in recent months and have a medium severity threat. The first vulnerability could result in a cross-site scripting attack whilst the second is to do with a cryptographic issue. There are over 1.6 billion websites in the world, and JavaScript is used on 95% of them, be sure to check if you could be affected.

  • CVE-2019-12043: there is a vulnerability in remarkable 1.7.1 affecting the unknown processing in the library lib/parser_inline.js of the component URL Handler. Manipulation of this component can lead to cross-site-scripting.
  • CVE-2019-9155: OpenPGP.js has a cryptographic issue which could allow attackers to conduct an invalid curve attack and gain the victim’s ECDH private key

CVE-2019-12043

Vulnerability Score: 6.1

Platform: Javascript

Components: remarkable version 1.7.1

Read up Javascript users! This vulnerability was posted last year in 2019, yet because of the significant amount of people using Javascript for their web apps, we thought it would be useful to inform people who might not have had time to address the issue. 

This vulnerability has been found in remarkable 1.7.1 and is considered problematic. The component mishandles URL filtering, which allows attackers to trigger an XSS attack via unprintable characters.

Cross site scripting is an injection of malicious code into a trusted web app. As described above, this happens when the user input is not sufficiently validated either on the client or server side. The scripts injected will have malware which then allows the hacker to do a series of exploits. What is more concerning is that the attack could then alter the appearance of the web app and also commence attacks on users visiting that site.

An image of a computer with three people huddled around it, pointing at the screen.
https://unsplash.com/photos/2FPjlAyMQTA

The solution for this vulnerability is to replace remarkable 1.7.1 with versions 1.7.4 to 2.0.0.

CVE-2019-9155

Vulnerability Score: 5.9

Platform: Javascript openpgp

Components: openpgp versions up to 4.2.0 included

This Javascript vulnerability was published in September 2019 and has a medium severity score of 5.9. 

The vulnerability is a cryptographic issue in OpenPGP.js up to and including 4.2.0. This is a library in Javascript and therefore can be used on nearly any device. Users do not have to install a gpg on their machines in order to use this library, and therefore it can be reused in other projects that have browser extensions or server apps. Its main function is to sign, encrypt, decrypt and verify any kind of text, specifically emails. 

The problem allows hackers, who can provide forged messages and get feedback on whether decryption of these messages succeeded, to eventually figure out and extract the victim’s private key.

An image of a key.
https://unsplash.com/photos/Nel8STCcWy8

To avoid this type of attack in the future, developers should identify sensitive data and encrypt them, even if stored on a hard drive. There should also be an effort to ensure the data cannot be overwritten by overwriting sensitive memory locations straight after the data is no longer needed in memory. 

In regards to this specific vulnerability, it is suggested to upgrade openpgp to version 4.3.0 or above. 

That is it from us…for now! Make sure to spread the word on these Javascript vulnerabilities in order to help protect your apps or the apps you develop. Read also our post about javascript vulnerabilities and remote code execution

As you all know, open-source vulnerabilities are discovered daily, so you can expect us to be back with new vulnerabilities very soon!

Knowing is half the battle. The other half is doing. Let Meterian help your dev team stay in the know and on top of the latest updates to secure your apps continuously. Sign up here to download the Meterian client today. You’ll get an instant analysis of your first project for free.  See the risks immediately and know which components to remove or upgrade to secure your app.

Vulnerability Focus: Javascript

New Java Vulnerabilities!

4min read

Attention to all Java users! Yes, we are back with a brand new set of Java vulnerabilities that I know you would like to get some juicy info on. During September 2019, two Java vulnerabilities have been discovered within the Apereo CAS versions before 6.1.0-RC5 and the Apache Tapestry versions between 5.4.0 to 5.4.3. The former open source vulnerability has been given a score of 8.1 whilst the later a higher score of 9.8 in regards to severity. So hurry, read up and don’t waste any time. You could be affected!

  • CVE-2019-10754 Apereo CAS (org.apereo.cas:*) components could allow a remote authenticated malicious user to obtain sensitive information, caused by the use of weak RandomStringUtils PRNG algorithm. 
  • CVE-2019-0195 Manipulating classpath asset file URLs, an attacker could guess the path to a known file in the classpath and have it downloaded.

CVE-2019-10754 

Vulnerability Score: 8.1 / HIGH

Platform: Java

Component: org.apereo.cas (Apereo CAS) 

Affected Versions: versions before 6.1.0-RC5

That’s right folks! Java has another vulnerability. Due to multiple classes using Apereo CAS (before the release of 6.1.0-RC5) and making use of apache commons-lang3 RandomStringUtils for token and ID generation, this has made them predictable and resulted in a cryptography weakness.

Apereo CAS is an open well-documented protocol, as well as an open-source Java server component. It provides support for multiple protocols (CAS, SAML, OAuth, OpenID) and is a library for clients such as Java, .NET, PHP, Perl, Apache, uPortal and more! Apereo’s mission is to help educational organizations ‘collaborate to foster, develop, and sustain open technologies and innovation to support learning, teaching and research’.

For example, org.apereo.cas:cas-server-support-simple-mfa is a package that allows Apereo CAS to act as a multifactor authentication provider by itself. This generates tokens and allows them to be sent to end-users via pre-defined communication channels such as email or text message. Please also note that this vulnerability affects multiple components of the Apereo CAS framework. 

So what is the threat? Well, the affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Insecure Randomness, as it relies on apache commons-lang3 RandomStringUtil  which can produce predictable results. So, this could allow an attacker to generate their own unique Ticket ID due to insufficient randomness. In other words, the attacker could guess the encryptionSecret used within GenerateJwtCommand and allow them to impersonate a user. This also means the attacker will have access to sensitive information caused by the use of the weak RandomStringUtils PRNG algorithm. 

Image showing user communicating with the server, and the hacker impersonating the user.

But don’t fret. There is a solution. It has been recommended to upgrade org.apereo.cas to version 6.1.0-RC5 or higher.

Java users, don’t give cyber criminals the chance to access your data. Act fast and upgrade org.apereo.cas! 

CVE-2019-0195

Vulnerability Score: 9.8 / CRITICAL

Platform: Java

Component: org.apache.tapestry (Apache Tapestry)

Affected Versions: versions 5.4.0 to 5.4.3.

We are not done yet folks! We have one more Java vulnerability to inform you guys on. Within the Apache Tapestry versions 5.4.0 to 5.4.3, the manipulating classpath asset file URLs allow an attacker to guess the path of a known file in the classpath and, as a result, download it. This was discovered on the 16/09/19 by Thiago H. de Paula Figueiredo.

The Apache Tapestry is an open-source framework for creating web applications in Java or other JVM languages. It also complements and builds upon standard Java Servlet API and works in any application server. Apache Tapestry has a long history. It has the oldest code, dating all the way back to 2000. This has resulted in many releases; developers now concentrate on Tapestry 5 as opposed to 3 and 4. 

What is tapestry.hmac-passphrase you say? This symbol is used to configure hash-based message authentication of Tapestry data stored in forms, or in the URL. In other words, your application is less secure and therefore more vulnerable to denial-of-service attacks. Especially when this symbol is not configured.

With various techniques, an attacker could guess the path to a known file in the classpath and have it downloaded. If the attacker found the file with the value of the  tapestry.hmac-passphrase configuration symbol, then they could use it to craft a Java deserialization attack, thus running a malicious injected Java code. 

Image showing a hacker guessing a file location, downloading the pass phrase and a computer showing it is has been hacked.

The recommended mitigation for this vulnerability has been suggested to upgrade to Tapestry 5.4.5, which is a drop-in replacement for any 5.4.x version. 

That is it from us…for now! Make sure to spread the word on these critically-rated Java vulnerabilities in order to help the app sec community defend against unwanted exploits. But as you all know, open-source vulnerabilities are discovered daily, so we recommend you regularly scan your code repositories for new known vulnerabilities. Don’t get caught off guard!

Knowing is half the battle. The other half is doing. Let Meterian help your dev team stay in the know and on top of the latest updates to secure your apps continuously.  Sign up here to download the Meterian client today.  You’ll get an instant analysis of your first project for free.  See the risks immediately and know which components to remove or upgrade to secure your app.

New Java Vulnerabilities!