It’s that time of the week again folks. Meterian has two new Node.Js vulnerabilities to inform you on. Both are ranked a severity score of 7.5 and therefore considered to be of urgent attention. The first vulnerability concerns the bson-objectid package and the second the csv-parse module. Act fast and don’t let these vulnerabilities sit within your software/networks, or you could be at serious risk of a cyber attack.
CVE-2019-19729: There is an issue discovered in the bson-objectid package version 1.3.0 for Node.js. Hackers could generate a malformed objectid, resulting in objects in arbitrary forms to bypass formatting if they have a valid bsontype.
CVE-2019-17592: The csv-parse module before version 4.4.6 for Node.js is vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service. An attacker can cause a program to spend an unnecessary amount of time processing.
Read up Node.js users you’ll want to know about this vulnerability! This was discovered on the 12th December 2019 by user Xiaofen9 on Github who noticed that ObjectID() allows an attacker to generate a malformed objectid by inserting an additional property to his user-input.
What is bson-objectid? This component allows you to create and parse ObjectIDs without using bigger components, such as other fully-fledged bson libraries.
The problem is that in certain conditions the input object will not be checked and will be returned early. This means that objects in arbitrary (potentially malicious) forms can completely bypass formatting and validation.
What can you do to fix this? Unfortunately, at this time of writing there is still no remedy to this vulnerability. However, we recommend to cease using this component or switch to a full bson library like bson.
Oh yes…we are not done yet. Here is another Node.js vulnerability for you all! This was discovered on the 14th of October and given a high score of 7.5 by NVD. The affected module is csv-parse which is a CSV module. This project is a parser which converts CSV text inputs into objects. It uses the Node.js stream.Transform API and provides a simple callback-based API. Released for the first time in 2010, it is very easy to use and helps the big community that uses it with large data sets.
Why is Regular Expression Denial Service a backdoor for hackers? The attacker will insert in the file a malicious string which they know would take a very long time to evaluate. This means the attacker can make the user spend an excessive amount of time processing, resulting in the user’s executed commands to slow down or become unresponsive. Thus, the availability of the system degrades. To make things worse, the exploit can be easily and remotely executed depicting clearly why this vulnerability is classified as problematic.
The best thing to do to avoid getting caught out by such exploit, is to upgrade to version 4.4.6 and above.
That is it from us…for now! Make sure to spread the word on these critically-rated Node.js vulnerabilities in order to help protect your apps/the apps you develop. But as you all know, open-source vulnerabilities are discovered daily, so you can expect us to be back with new vulnerabilities very soon!
Knowing is half the battle. The other half is doing. Let Meterian help your dev team stay in the know and on top of the latest updates to secure your apps continuously. Sign up here to download the Meterian client today. You’ll get an instant analysis of your first project for free. See the risks immediately and know which components to remove or upgrade to secure your app.
Alas, with the growth of innovation in this sector, there also comes the risk of cyber attacks. The healthcare sector in particular seems to be a major target for cyber criminals. Why is this? What is the financial impact? And most importantly what can be done?
Why do cyber criminals target the healthcare sector?
There are many reasons why the healthcare sector is a target:
One of the main reasons has to do with the financial worth of the masses of patient information hospitals store. With the introduction of GDPR (May 2018) it has never been so crucial for hospitals and businesses to keep patient data secure.
Medical devices tend to be easy entry points for cyber attackers. Due to these devices only being used for medical practices, cyber security is not within the design of the product. Although these devices will not store patient data, hackers can launch an attack on the server which holds important information. For example, a vulnerability was discovered in the work of insulin pumps of Johnson & Johnson. This vulnerability could have allowed attackers to get control of the device via Wi-Fi and provoke an overdose of insulin in the patient’s blood.
Medical staff are accessing data remotely on different devices and networks, which provides another entry point for attackers. The problem is that if one device is hacked, this might leave the rest of the organisation vulnerable.
Despite the healthcare sector progressively innovating its practices, staff are still reluctant to disrupt working practices with the introduction of new technology. This creates weaknesses in the healthcare organisation’s IT systems because it produces outdated software that allows entry points for cyber criminals.
The result of costly budgets, lack of resources and time constraints make it hard for healthcare staff to be fully educated in cybersecurity practices.
The vast amount of devices used in a hospital makes it hard for IT specialists to protect the entire hardware network against attacks.
A very serious reason why the healthcare sector is targeted is also to do with international espionage. For example:
John Riggi, a former ex-FBI cyber specialist: Hospitals are “being targeted by hostile nation-states for theft of intellectual property related to medical research, innovations, cancer studies, population health studies, research of medicine and clinical trials, and also potentially for conversion for military use such as biological weapons”
They might target hospitals to acquire the medical details of business leaders, politicians or military figures. An example is seen when the Singaporean government health database was hacked in 2018. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong was amongst the 1.5 million whose personal data was stolen from the database.
Another problem is if hackers target hospitals near military installations this could give sensitive records of military personnel and worse, insight into where troops might be deployed.
Popular cyber attacks within the healthcare sector
The most popular attacks to the healthcare sector have shown to be:
Often these attacks will affect machines through: phishing emails with malicious attachments, a user clicking on a malicious link, or viewing an advertisement containing malware. But an entry point that is often disregarded is ransomware via an outdated component or software. For example Hollywood Presbyterian Hospital in California suffered a ransomware attack due to an outdated JBoss server software. The attacker uploaded malware to the out-of-date server without any interaction with a victim. This resulted in delayed patient care and the hospital had to pay $17,000 to recover access to files and the network. What was interesting was that the attackers had used an open source tool, JexBoss, to search the internet for a vulnerable JBoss server and networks which had been infected. Organisations that handle healthcare data have to make sure to update their systems as the majority of healthcare ransomware attacks are malware related.
What is a JBoss Server? This is an open source application server program used for developing and deploying enterprise java applications, services and web portals. JBoss released its last version (7.1.1) in 2012, as it then switched its name to Wildfly in its next release. So if you are running an application server with the name JBoss, it is out of date and has been for a very long time.
Data breaches can occur for many different types of reasons, from credential stealing malware to insider threats to lost devices. The reason why data breaches are so common within the healthcare sector is because Personal Health Information (PHI) is more valuable on the black market than financial or Personally Identifiable Information (PII).
This shows the value of patient data financially. However, PHI can be valuable also to target victims with fraud scams by taking advantage of their medical conditions. Cyber criminals have also been known to use stolen patient data to access prescriptions for their own use or resale.
With the enforcement of GDPR since May 2018, securing patient and medical records has never been so important.
Business email compromise is when hackers use spoof emails to compromise an account by tricking the employee to transfer money to a fake account. Normally, the fraudsters pretend to be a person of authority within the company to seem as if they might be asking a legitimate request. This has been successful because fraudsters tend to do a lot of research on their targets and will make sure to convincingly impersonate the individual whilst only sending the email to select few people.
Although many security executives think that their programs are providing sufficient protection, these programs might not be securing the actual patient or member data. There needs to be an understanding between compliance-driven strategy which is when programs do not stand up to the test of the attackers and security-driven strategy when programs are designed to deal with attackers and the threats they create. This means a refocus on the actual risks of the healthcare infrastructure:
Where is the patient data?
Where does it live?
How is it stored?
How is it protected?
Are these protections sufficient?
Therefore when new technologies are in place there can also be a focus on:
If the technologies are fully supported
If the technologies are deployed across the organisation’s entire enterprise
That the technologies have no limited capacities
That the technologies are never unmonitored
Both patient care and business continuity are important to healthcare organisations. As hospitals and caregivers rely on technology to deliver greater gains for more timely care and more efficient business processes, they must ensure their systems are secure and stable for everyday operations. This requires a cyber resilient approach that addresses people and processes, as well as the technology used. Read Meterian’s blog post on how your organization can become more cyber resilient.